Thursday, September 3, 2020

SAT Essay Prompts The Complete List

SAT Essay Prompts The Complete List SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips On each SAT Essay, you'll need to peruse a contention intended to convince a wide crowd and examine how well the writer contends their point. The section you'll need to peruse will change from test to test, however you'll generally need to dissect the writer's contention and compose a cognizant and sorted out paper clarifying this examination. In this article, we've ordered a rundown of the 14 genuine SAT paper prompts that the College Board has discharged (either in The Official SAT Study Guide or independently on the web) for the new SAT. This is the most thorough arrangement of new SAT paper prompts online today. Toward the finish of this article, we'll likewise manage you through how to capitalize on these prompts and connection to our master assets on acing the SAT paper. I'll talk about how the SAT exposition prompts are important not on the grounds that they allow you to compose a training paper, but since of what they uncover about the article task itself. Review SAT article prompts consistently keep to a similar essential organization. Not exclusively is the brief organization predictable from test to test, however what you're really approached to do (talk about how a creator assembles a contention) likewise continues as before across various test organizations. The College Board's consistency with SAT exposition assists understudies with concentrating on getting ready for the real expository undertaking, instead of concocting stuff on their feet. Without fail, before the section, you'll see the accompanying: As you read the entry underneath, consider how [the author] employments proof, for example, realities or models, to help claims. thinking to create thoughts and to associate cases and proof. complex or convincing components, for example, word decision or bids to feeling, to add capacity to the thoughts communicated. Also, after the section, you'll see this: Compose a paper where you clarify how [the author] constructs a contention to convince [her/his] crowd that [whatever the creator is attempting to contend for]. In your article, break down how [the author] utilizes at least one of the highlights recorded in the crate above (or highlights willingly) to reinforce the rationale and influence of his contention. Be certain that your examination centers around the most important highlights of the section. Your exposition ought not clarify whether you concur with [the author]'s cases, but instead clarify how [the author] assembles a contention to convince [her/his] crowd. Since you know the arrangement, how about we take a gander at the SAT exposition prompts list. 14 Official SAT Essay Prompts The College Board has discharged a predetermined number of prompts to help understudies prep for the paper. We've assembled them for you here, across the board place. We'll make certain to refresh this article as more prompts are discharged for training and additionally as more tests are discharged. SPOILER ALERT: Since these are the main article prompts that have been discharged up until this point, you might need to be wary about ruining them for yourself, especially on the off chance that you are anticipating taking practice tests under genuine conditions. This is the reason I've composed the prompts by the 10 that are in the training tests (so you can maintain a strategic distance from them if need be), the ones that are accessible online as test prompts, and the ones that are in the content of the Official SAT Study Guide (Redesigned SAT), all online for nothing. Practice Test Prompts These 10 prompts are taken from the training tests that the College Board has discharged. Practice Test 1: Compose an article where you clarify how Jimmy Carter fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ought not be produced for industry. Practice Test 2: Compose an exposition where you clarify how Martin Luther King Jr. fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that American association in the Vietnam War is shameful. Practice Test 3: Compose an exposition wherein you clarify how Eliana Dockterman assembles a contention to convince her crowd that there are advantages to early presentation to innovation. Practice Test 4: Compose a paper where you clarify how Paul Bogard assembles a contention to convince his crowd that regular haziness ought to be protected. Practice Test 5: Compose a paper where you clarify how Eric Klinenberg fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that Americans need to incredibly diminish their dependence on cooling. Practice Test 6: Compose an article wherein you clarify how Christopher Hitchens fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that the first Parthenon models ought to be come back to Greece. Practice Test 7: Compose an exposition wherein you clarify how Zadie Smith constructs a contention to convince her crowd that open libraries are significant and ought to stay open Practice Test 8: Compose an article where you clarify how Bobby Braun assembles a contention to convince his crowd that the US government must keep on putting resources into NASA. Practice Test 9: Compose an exposition wherein you clarify how Todd Davidson assembles a contention to convince his crowd that the US government must keep on subsidizing national parks. Practice Test 10: Compose an exposition where you clarify how Richard Schiffman constructs a contention to convince his crowd that Americans need to work less hours. Exceptional note: The brief for Practice Test 4 likewise shows up on the College Board's site with genuine example papers written accordingly. In the event that you've composed a training exposition for training test 4 and need to perceive what papers of various score levels resemble for that specific brief, you can go there and take a gander at eight genuine understudy papers. inside dimness by jason jenkins, utilized under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from unique. Free Online Practice This brief originates from the College Board site. Compose a paper where you clarify how Dana Gioia fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that the decrease of perusing in America will negatively affect society. This brief originates from Khan Academy, where it is recorded as an other paper brief to oblige Practice Test 2: Compose an article wherein you clarify how Leo W. Gerard constructs a contention to convince his crowd that American schools and colleges ought to be reasonable for all understudies. The Official SAT Study Guide 2020 The Official SAT Study Guide (releases distributed in 2015 and later accessible online for nothing) contains every one of the 10 of the recently referenced practice tests toward the finish of the book. In the segment about the new SAT exposition, be that as it may, there are two extra example paper prompts (joined by articles to investigate). Test Prompt 1: Compose a paper wherein you clarify how Peter S. Goodman fabricates a contention to convince his crowd that news associations should expand the measure of expert outside news inclusion gave to individuals in the United States. Test Prompt 2: Compose a paper where you clarify how Adam B. Summers assembles a contention to convince his crowd that plastic shopping sacks ought not be prohibited. hello thanks by Jonathan Youngblood, utilized under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and resized from unique. Need to get familiar with the SAT yet burnt out on perusing blog articles? At that point you'll adore our free, SAT prep livestreams. Planned and driven by PrepScholar SAT specialists, these live video occasions are an incredible asset for understudies and guardians hoping to become familiar with the SAT and SAT prep. Snap on the catch beneath to enroll for one of our livestreams today! How Do You Get the Most Out of These Prompts? Since you have all the prompts discharged by the College Board, it's imperative to realize the most ideal approach to utilize them. Ensure you have a decent harmony among quality and amount, and don't consume every one of the 14 of the genuine prompts straight set aside the effort to gain from your encounters composing the training papers. Bit by bit Guide on How to Practice Using the Article #1: Understand how the SAT article is reviewed. #2: Follow along as we compose a high-scoring SAT article, bit by bit. #3: Plan a lot of highlights you'll search for in the SAT exposition readings and work on expounding on them smoothly. This doesn't simply mean distinguishing a method, such as posing a logical inquiry, yet clarifying why it is enticing and what impact it has on the peruser with regards to a specific theme. We have more data on this progression in our article around 6 SAT influential gadgets you can utilize. #4: Choose a brief indiscriminately from above, or pick a theme that you believe will be difficult for you to withdraw from (in light of the fact that you'll need to expound on the point, instead of the contention) set clock to 50 minutes and compose the exposition. No additional time permitted! #5: Grade the exposition, utilizing the official article rubric to give yourself a score out of 8 in the perusing, examination, and composing areas. #6: Repeat stages 4 and 5. Pick the prompts you think will be the hardest for you with the goal that you can so you're set up for the most exceedingly awful when the test day comes #7: If you come up short on authentic prompts to rehearse with, utilize the official prompts as models to discover instances of different articles you could expound on. Startby searching for opinion piece articles in online news distributions like The New York Times, The Atlantic, LA Times, etc. For example, the entry about the plastic pack boycott in California (Official SAT Study Guide test paper brief 2, above) has a contrast here-you could take a stab at examining and expounding on that article too. Any extra articles you use for training on the SAT paper must match the accompanying rules: in a perfect world 650-750 words, despite the fact that it'll be hard to track down a commentary piece that is normally that short. Attempt to target nothing longer than 2000 words, however, or the extent of the article is probably going to be more extensive than anything you'll experience on the SAT. continuously factious/influential. The writer (or writers) is attempting to get perusers to concur with a case or thought being advanced. continuously proposed for a wide crowd. All the data you need

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Slavery in Africa Essay Example for Free

Bondage in Africa Essay For nearly the whole written history in many networks, subjugation is a conspicuous component. In any case, slave exchange Africa left a noteworthy heritage because of the enormous quantities of slaves that were included and furthermore the sufferings that the slaves were exposed to. This makes the servitude that occurred in Africa to be of incredible essentialness and subsequently it can't be overlooked. Bondage was extraordinary in Africa than in some other piece of the world, numerous years prior to the transoceanic servitude. The Lagos sea town was the first to be utilized by the Portuguese as a slave showcase where they might sell the African slaves after they were imported (Evans, Para 3). Bondage in Africa The issue of whether subjection existed in the networks of the sub Saharan Africa before the Europeans showed up in these locales is an issue that is fervently challenged between the Eurocentric and Afrocentric scholastics. In any case, the discussion doesn't take out the way that slave exchange was a conspicuous element in Africa. It is obvious from numerous chronicled sources that the Africans were exposed to different types of bondage. The property bondage was polished by the Europeans by means of the popular Trans Atlantic slave exchange and the Muslims who were leading the Trans Saharan slave exchange. A long time after slave exchange was abrogated in Africa, the bad habit proceeded as the provincial forces administering Africa kept on exposing Africans to constrained work (Evans, Para 5). Subjugation in Africa was rehearsed by both the Europeans and Muslims. The Muslims were engaged with slave exchange over the Saharan district. They put together this training with respect to the Qur’ran which endorses that servitude ought to be drawn nearer on compassionate grounds. As per the Qur’ran, free men ought not be made slaves and those rehearsing different religions ought to be secured. By and by, the expansion of the domain of the Islam in Africa prompted the brutal understanding of the Qur’ran law. This made the individuals who were broadcasting different religions to be considered as perfect competitors of servitude by the Muslims. Such slaves were either sold by the Muslims to others who needed slaves or the Muslims themselves could accept them as their own slaves (Miers, pp 130). At the point when the Portuguese showed up just because at the African shore of the Atlantic in 1430s, they were just keen on gold and not slaves. Be that as it may, before the finish of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese had just exchanged in excess of eighty one thousand African captives to the neighboring Atlantic islands, Europe and to the Muslim vendors (Evans, Para 7). For two centuries, I. e. between the years 1440-1640, the Portuguese had the restraining infrastructure of sending out captives to Europe from Africa. It is wonderful that Portugal was the last European country to annul slave exchange, in spite of the fact that France kept on abusing the previous slaves through constrained work. It is approximated that during the whole time of slave exchange Africa, which went on for around four and a half hundreds of years, the slave exchange of the trans Atlantic, in which the Portuguese were the fundamental players, figured out how to send out more than four and a half million Africans as captives to different nations. In any case, during the eighteenth century, when in excess of 6,000,000 Africans became slaves in outside nations, Britain was the most famous country rehearsing the bad habit, yet this reality is normally overlooked by the individuals who refer to the prime pretended by Britain in finishing the slave exchange in Africa as well as in the whole world (Lovejoy, pp 129). The primary point of servitude in Africa was to give modest work to the nations which were creating around then and which were in critical need of modest work. The Muslims and nations, for example, Portugal were the principle members in the exchange since they had the option to send out the slaves from Africa and accordingly offer them to different nations and making riches from the exchange. The Africans who were caught as slaves were first taken to the nearby slave markets where they were sold and later shipped by means of the Atlantic Ocean to different nations where they stayed for the remainder of their lives as slaves (Miers, pp 220). End Slave exchange Africa was extremely noticeable than in some other piece of the world. This is on the grounds that a great many Africans were subjugated by the more remarkable countries, for example, Britain and Portugal. The Africans who became slaves in remote nations were exposed to a great deal of enduring by their lords. They were precluded most from claiming their privileges and had to work for their lords with no compensation. Work refered to: Evans, Alistair Boddy; Slavery of Africans and Slavery in Africa (2009): Retrieved on third July 2009 from, http://africanhistory. about. com/od/subjection/a/Slavery101. htm. Lovejoy, Paul E. ; Transformations in subjugation: a background marked by bondage in Africa (2000): Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521784301. Miers, Suzanne; Slavery in Africa: chronicled and anthropological viewpoints (1979): Univ. of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0299073343.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

buy custom Software Development Organization essay

purchase custom Software Development Organization exposition The product improvement firm tended to in this paper is called Agape software engineers. This organization has an administration style that is trouble exacting and adaptable simultaneously. The administration takes into account open just as controlled methods of the executives. With respect to the interior procedure model, the serious worth structure requires a ton of severity in the board. Agape software engineers actualize this severity during new representative enlistment. All candidates are constantly confirmed by a board to learn their level of fitness. The questioners just pick the best competitor who will convey in the activity. Anyway upon enrollment, the Agape Programmers the executives consistently upholds great relationship inside the association. All the software engineers are overhauled with the desires and the targets of the association. This has assisted with encouraging responsibility. Great connections ought to be upheld for. The laborers should be energized and inspired. Sound relational relationship and inspiration are key components for boosting the exhibition of the worker which thus influences the benefit of the association emphatically. Agape Programmers does this inspiration by method of dispatching great pay rates and remittances. All representatives consistently approach free clinical administrations at whatever point need emerges. Agape Programmers have extremely severe group of supervisors whose primary target is to see the association develop to more prominent statures. Any advancement procedure must be arranged and all around planned. This degree of arranging provides food for reasonable objective model in Competitive worth structure. No product can be structured effectively without legitimate arranging. Agape Programmers make recompense for open frameworks model at whatever point software engineers are taking a shot at a framework. Every individual is permitted to contribute and advance their recommendations. This makes a feeling of proprietorship among the software engineers. Agape Programmers has created and will keep on exceeding expectations because of this incredible move. Purchase custom Software Development Organization exposition

Grendel Character Analysis Essays

Grendel Character Analysis Essays Grendel Character Analysis Paper Grendel Character Analysis Paper Exposition Topic: Grendel Beowulf is a gallant epic chronicling the life of one fearless warrior and the fights he faces. For some odd reason the fight he is generally acclaimed for was in all feasible hood, against the simplest adversary he at any point confronted. The character Grendel is constantly depicted as some vile rascal who relishes executing and would cherish simply to go through his entire time on earth butchering blameless individuals. In the event that, anyway the content is perused cautiously, it is very obvious that Grendel is a great tormented soul who has been given such wrath and torment by outer powers, for example, God and his mom. There is a lot of literary proof that proposes that God had an enormous submit the formation of Grendel He was brought forth in that sludge/Conceived by a couple of those beasts conceived of Cain/deadly animals exiled by God. (Line 19-22). So in simply the initial barely any lines of the sonnet it is expressed that Grendel is a posterity of one of Gods defective manifestations. He has been ousted always for the wrongdoings of his ancestor, which is not really reasonable treatment from God. It is additionally expressed that the beasts are in steady restriction of the Lord, A brood always contradicting the Lords will. : (28-29). Grendel is naturally introduced to a universe of contempt and enduring, of brutal and low treatment that he has done nothing to merit. Skirting ahead in the sonnet there is another occasion of Gods obstruction Bearing Gods contempt/Grendel came, wanting to murder (286-287). This is an explanation that fundamentally clarifies everything that is going on inside Grendel. He is bearing Gods scorn (286) that is a ground-breaking articulation with solid ramifications. It appears the creator would have us accept that Grendel is a type of conductor for God to empty his wrath into. This prompts the inquiry, who is Grendels father? All that is said is that he was a beast, and there is nothing more gigantic than causing your kid to endure so you dont have as well. Could this supposed God be Grendels father? While there is next to no literary help for this case the suggestions are exceptionally solid. So now it very well may be said that Grendel is at last not answerable for his violations, God was utilizing him to redirect his own human feelings. Presently God was not by any means the only outside power that transformed Grendel into a beast, his mom, as cited above, is a deadly beast. So any reasonable person would agree that Grendels mind was formed and distorted by his moms lessons. The facts demonstrate that kids frequently follow the strides of their folks, take a gander at certain models from present day, the offspring of on-screen characters regularly grow up to be entertainers, the offspring of troopers frequently grow up to join the military. Things havent changed its simply the way the world transforms and tragically Grendel was naturally introduced to an extremely awful Profession. So the genuine inquiry to pose is, without Gods fierceness would Grendel still have assault Herot? Its difficult to know without a doubt, however utilizing pieces of information from the content it appears as, no he would not. When Grendel first excursions down to Herot he is basically going to perceive what the Danes do after they drink Grendel/Went up to Herot, thinking about what the warriors/Would do in that corridor when their drinking was finished. (30-32). The sonnet states in that spot that he went with only interest in his heart, that sadly would before long change The beasts/considerations were as speedy as his voracity or his hooks:/He sneaked past the entryway and there peacefully/Snatched up thirty men, crushed them/Unknowing in their beds and ran out with their bodies (34-38). The content expresses that he was loaded up with avarice, yet whose eagerness right? His or maybe Gods? A significant number of the inquiries presented above basically cannot be replied, however they do raise some intriguing focuses and show another perspective on exemplary story. Maybe the beast ought to be felt sorry for rather than detested. In the event that God is emptying his negative human feelings into him, at that point there is nothing Grendel can do about it. Grendel is in all actuality simply The evil of God.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Hybrid Organizational Model for Theory and Policy- myassignmenthelp

Question: Examine about theHybrid Organizational Model for Theory and Policy. Answer: Cross breed authoritative structure alludes to a model of an association that grasps a few different ways of arranging the assets with the point of accomplishing the set destinations. Associations working under this structure consolidate the social perspective utilized by non-benefit organizations together with the business component of benefit making ventures (Boyd, et. al, 2017). In this way, we can say that these an organizations or organizations that are out to make benefits while maintaining the open intrigue. On the social government assistance part, the associations can offer to do things like chipping in, and other network social obligation exercises. While doing this the association is additionally concentrating on the business part to guarantee that they are not running a negative way. This model is generally appropriate for non-benefit associations. The principle reason being that they are society situated while they despite everything need to run easily. In this way, the time the chiefs and pioneers of the non-benefit substances to grasp the crossover model. This will cause them to understand their goals, which predominantly is to contact individuals in the general public and do it without pondering running low on their financing (Pinckney-Edwards, 2011). Before, these associations appropriately relied upon well-wishers and gifts to run adequately. Today, it is completely extraordinary in that the non-benefit associations are setting up feeder programs that work to finance them in any event, when the givers and well-wishers dont fill the financial plan. Focal points of Hybrid Organizations Cross breed associations will in general adjust social crucial benefit while including a basic worth chain. This structure and meaning of exercises make these organizations increasingly economical over the long haul. The venture can accomplish two objectives one after another utilizing this model. The business gets the opportunity to reach and claim general society or the network while simultaneously it can increase a benefit or addition operational assets for its exercises. Inconveniences of Hybrid Organizations In the event that there are not all around characterized objectives and goals, the association is inclined to crumple or one side shadowing the other. For instance, if the organization neglects to put very much organized systems it is simple for either the social qualities or financial qualities to overwhelm one another (Billis, 2012). All in all, it is obvious this is a viable model for non-benefit associations given that they have a very much laid arrangement and execution design (Pinckney-Edwards, 2011). It is acceptable to see more associations receive this model in their tasks. The administration has yielded in the arrangement of social administrations, thus these associations can contribute which will support the networks (Koppell, 2013). References Billis, D. (2012).Hybrid Organizations and the Third Sector: Challenges for Practice, Theory, and Policy. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Boyd, B., Henning, N., Reyna, E., Wang, D., Welch, M., Hoffman, A. J. (2017).Hybrid Organizations: New Business Models for Environmental Leadership. Pinckney-Edwards, J. M. (2011).Hybrid Organizations: Social Enterprise Social Entrepreneurship, Course VI. Spot of production not distinguished: Koppell, J. G. S. (2013).The Politics of Quasi-Government: Hybrid Organizations and the Dynamics of Bureaucratic Control. Cambridge: Univ. Press.

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Words of the Week! Weather Whether Richmond Writing

Words of the Week! Weather Whether Richmond Writing Ah, homonyms in a time when we are once again becoming an oral culture. Too many of my students neither read enough seriously nor read with care when they are required to do so. Hence, the repeated docking of 10 points (they can get them back) for confusing whether and weather. As in Dylans song, you dont need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows. Its blowing an ill wind, for nuance in the language. I think. If so, I cannot stop it with my 10 measly points.   But what if these winds blew before? And will blow again? Hence my Mead Hall photo. We are going back to the time of Beowulf, fen-stalking Grendel the monster, and the warlike but helpless Geats that the monster preyed upon. As well see, there were once two distinct terms in play that now sound exactly alike. So where did our words come from and where diverge? Lets dip again into Henry Bradleys The Making of English, (a steal for your Kindle at 99 cents, the one sort of book I like to read on a screen). The philologist notes, in his chapter on changes of meaning, that [m]ost of the distinctions that exist in spelling and not in pronunciation are between words that are historically different, and when this is so the various spelling usually represent obsolete varieties of pronunciation. Whether is one of the oldest English words Ive featured. The OED dates an obsolete adverbial form back to the time of Beowulf, with the Old English term  hwæþ(e)re. Leaving that term in the Mead Hall with the brooding Geats, lets move forward in time a bit, to look over, in your own sweet time, (spelled many different ways)  the multiple ways in which whether  got employed down the centuries. Its almost maddening to follow the many twists and turns this one ancient word took, until we get to 1819,   with Poet Percy  Shelley wondering in a letter, I am exceedingly interested in the question of  whether  this attempt of mine will succeed or no. So am I. Can I teach Gen Z why the words are not interchangeable in writing? Or is it as doomed as Beowulfs last battle with a dragon? Lets not go there. What about the weather? Here we have another ancient word, this time from German, rendered in Old English as  weder.  I suppose when Grendel ventured out into the fens to maim, mangle, and eat Geat, he did his best work in foul weather, and he was able to distinguish the pronunciation of the two terms. The OED notes morphing in how the word got spelled, but like whether, weather  (the word, if not the phenomena) settled down by the 19th Century. What will happen next, round the colossal wreck of whether and weather? Im no weatherman. I dont know. Our modern forms of communication lend themselves to encouraging more simplification. Maybe well use one spelling such as wether in a century, and listeners will then, as now, know which way the linguistic wind should blow. I and my 10-point penalty will be long gone, either way. Please send us words and metaphors useful in academic writing by e-mailing me (jessid -at- richmond -dot- edu) or leaving a comment below. See all of our Metaphors of the Month  here  and Words of the Week  here. Mead hall image courtesy of Wikipedia. I really wanted one of Beowulf ripping off Grendels arm, but I didnt know weather whether it would be safe for work.

Monday, June 22, 2020

Roscoe Pound and Sociological Jurisprudence - Free Essay Example

INDEX Roscoe Pound à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Introduction Social Engineering Interest Theory Jural Postulates Criticism Case Law Conclusion Bibliography Roscoe Pound à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Introduction Roscoe Pound was one of the leading figures in twentieth-century legal thought. As a scholar, teacher, reformer, and dean of Harvard Law School, Pound strove to link law and society through his sociological jurisprudence and to improve the administration of the judicial system. In the early decades of the century, Pound was viewed as a radical thinker for arguing that the law is not static and must adapt to the needs of society. By the 1930s, however, he was seen as a more conservative figure, fighting the growth of federal government.[1] Pound was born on October 27, 1870, in Lincoln, Nebraska. The son of a judge, Pound attended the University of Nebraska, earning a bachelor of arts degree in botany in 1888. His father convinced him to attend Harvard Law School, but he stayed only one year. The death of his father led Pound to return to Lincoln, where he passed the Nebraska bar examination and was admitted to the bar in 1890.[2] A gifted scholar, Pound could have had a disti nguished career in the sciences, but his appointment in 1901 as a commissioner of appeals for the Nebraska Supreme Court permanently shifted his career to the law. As a commissioner he acted as a temporary appellate judge, helping to reduce a backlog of cases. His opinions emphasized substance over procedure and reflected a concern with the practical effect of the law. In 1903 he was appointed dean of the Nebraska College of Law.[3] Roscoe Pound also made a significant contribution to jurisprudence in the tradition of sociological jurisprudence, which emphasized on the importance of social relationships in the development of law and vice versa. His best-known theory consists of conceptualising law as social engineering. According to Pound, a lawmaker acts as a social engineer by attempting to solve problems in society using law as a tool. He was a prolific writer and his major works include The Spirit of The Common Law(1921, An Introduction to The Philosophy of Law (1922), Int erpretations of Legal History(1923), Law and Morals (1926), etc[4] Social Engineering Man is a social animal and needs a society for his leaving, working and enjoying life. A group of individual forms a society. Society has become an essential condition for human life to develop his or her personality. Therefore society and human life always go together. Every human being has also born with some desires and expectations which are inherent in nature. From childhood to till old age, every human being expects that his or her desire is to be fulfilled for which their arise conflict of desires or claims which comes under the term , à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“interestà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . It is impossible to fulfil all the desires of a human being. So to fulfil the desires of maximum human being for the welfare of society the concept of Social Engineering was emerged and which was coined by Roscoe Pound. [5] The force which asks for the adoption of Social engineering is nothing but the conflict of interests of individuals. Interests more particularly the conflicting interest are the s ubject of Social Engineering. Social engineering is based on the notion that Laws are used as a means to shape society and regulate peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s behaviour. It is an attempt to control the human conduct through the help of Law. According to Pound, Law is social engineering which means a balance between the competing interests in society[6] Throughout the exposition of his legal philosophy Pound has spoken of law without attempting to define the term precisely. He has carried on about how law can be a tool for social change i.e that is social engineering thus it is important to know his view on what law is, his typically pragmatic approach has been to assume that the nature of law may best be understood by what it does. Pound sets forth three apparently distinct ideas which have been described by the word law : a regime of adjusting relations and ordering conduct by systematic and orderly application of the force of a politically organized society otherwise called the legal order. body of authoritative materials of or grounds of or guides to determination, whether judicial or administrative. This body of materials may be described more minutely as made up of authoritative precepts, an authoritative technique of development and application, and a background of received ideals of the social and legal order. the judicial and administrative processes, the process of determining causes and controversies according to the authoritative guides in order to uphold the legal order. After pointing out that these are three distinct ideas, and that calling them by the one term has been a source of confusion in discussions on the nature of law, Pound says: If the three meanings can be unified, it is by the idea of social control, [7] He says that like an engineerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s formulae, laws represent experience, scientific formulations of experience and logical developments of the formulations, also inventive skill in conceiving new devices and formulating their requirements by means of a developed technique Here Pound has used two words i.e. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Socialà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  means group of individual forming a society. The second word is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Engineeringà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which means applied science carried out by engineers to produce finished products which are necessary for the society and which fulfil all their needs. By combining these two words he tries to say about engineers and what they do. They use the formula which is based on c ontinuous experimentation and experience to get the finished product by means of an instrument or device To elaborate further on Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“engineeringà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  , he explained his concept by explaining the role of engineer/architect and equating it to lawyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s. Just as an engineer chalks up a plan before starting a project so do lawyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s they must work with a goal in mind to uplift society. Lawyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s lay down a strong system of law based on jurisprudential principles to satisfy the demand of society. It is in this whole process that law is related to social engineering. Therefore Pound represents à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“experience with lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  , instrument with organs of government, engineers with judge and lawyer and finished product with the wants of human beings and society with a factory. He says that like engineers, the lawyer should apply law in a court room so that the desires of th e people are fulfilled. Therefore he calls law as Social Engineering and says that the aim of Social Engineering is to build as efficient a structure of society as possible which requires the satisfaction of wants with the minimum of friction and waste. It means Law should work for balancing of competing interest within the society for the greatest benefit. Interest Theory In a society everybody is motivated by their own interest and wants that preference be given to his or her interest over the other. Conflicts between interests arise because of the competition of the individuals with each other, with the public in order to satisfy human wants. Therefore it is needed to recognize the interest to which law should take account[8]. For this purpose a legal system has to i. Recognize certain interest ii. Define the limits within which such interest are to be legally recognized and given effect to it. iii. And finally the above interest should be secured. Suppose I want to stand first in the exam. It is my desire. But this desire cannot be fulfilled because there is no legal recognition as there is no stateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s interest in standing first position. Therefore law has to take into account the desires which need recognition. For the purpose of satisfying human interests, Pound defined interest as , claims or wants or desires which men assert de facto about which the law must do something if organized societies are to endure.[9] Pound classified various interests which are to be protected by the law under three categories which are the following[10]: 1. INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS: These are claims or demands involved from the stand point of the individual life which consists of interest of personality, interest in domestic relations and interest of substance. 2. PUBLIC INTEREST: These are the claims or desires asserted by the individual from the stand point of political life which means every individual in a society has a responsibility towards each other and to make the use of things which are open to public use. Interest in preservation of state. 3. SOCIAL INTEREST: These are the claims or demands in terms of social life which means to fulfil all the needs of a society as a whole for the proper functioning and maintenance of it. Interest in preservation of general peace, health, security of transactionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, preserving social institutions like religion, politics, economic. It is found that there is overlapping of interest between Public and Social Interest because both are same. Pound is silent about the overlapping of interest and discussed the problem of interests in terms of balancing of Individual Interest and Social Interest. He has classified the interest into three categories but talks about the balancing of only Individual and Social Interest. It is also found that interests are the subjects on whom law has to apply social engineering. Jural Postulates What are the guidelines on the basis of which social engineering should be carried out? Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s answered this by saying that every society is based on basic assumptions which help in ordering of interest. One interest is of more value than that of other and the object of law should be to satisfy the interest which is in the benefit of the maximum people. Thus these assumptions are identified as jural postulates which are based on hypothesis[11]. According to Pound, jural postulates are not the absolute one and they keep on changing as the needs of the situation, place and time demands. In 1919, Pound summarized the postulates which every individual in civilized society must be able to take it for granted that[12]: Others will not commit any intentional aggressions upon him. E.g. Assault, battery, wrongful restraint etc. Others will act with due care and will not cast upon him an unreasonable risk of injury. E.g. Negligence He can appropriate what he has created by his own labour and what he has acquired under existing economic order for his own use. E.g. agricultural land and usufruct as property. The people with whom he deals with in the general intercourse of society will act in good faith. E.g. Defamation He must keep the things within his boundary and should look after those things so that their escape should not harm others. E.g. Ryland vs. Fletcher case In 1942, Pound added three new postulates in the list which are[13] : A person will have security as a job holder. E.g. ruled by labour law, law of contract Society will bear the burden of supporting him when he becomes aged. E.g. 1/3rd concession in railway ticket, ceiling of income tax range is more. And the society as a whole will bear the risk of unforeseen misfortunes such as disablement. E.g. reservation quota for physically disabled person in education, travel etc. The jural postulates are to be applied both by the legislators and judiciary for evaluating and balancing the various interests and harmonizing them. He has not said anything about the interest which will be given more priority over other. 5. Criticism Pounds theory of social engineering has been criticized on various grounds. It is contended that the classification of interests by pound is in the nature of a catalogue to which additions and changes have constantly to be made which is neutral as regards the relative value and priority of the interest enumerated. Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s theory of social engineering has been criticized for the use of the term engineering, which equates society to a factory like mechanism. Law is a social process rather than the result of an applied engineering. Equating society with a factory is also not correct because the former is changing and dynamic in nature whereas the latter is more or less static. Again , poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s emph asis on engineering ignores the fact that law evolves and develops in the society according to social needs and wants for which law may either have develops in the society according to social needs and wants. A general criticism against poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s theory is regarding his use of the word engineering because it suggest a mechanical application of the principle to social needs, the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“engineeringà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  is used by pound metaphorically to indicate the problems which the law has to face, the objectives which it has to fulfil and the method which it will have to adopt for this purposes. Pound does not give an ideal scale of values with reference to interests. In fact pounds himself has admitted that philosophy has failed to provide an ideal scale of values and that the best that jurist can do is to proceed with the task of adapting law to the needs of his generalization the choice between conflicting ideologies is one for the community at large. Another criticism against his theory is that emphasis on engineering ignores an important part of law which develops and evolves in the society according to social needs the law simply recognises or approves it. This dynamic feature of law is undermined. Pound himself has inserted a certain evaluation by describing the interest in individual life as the most important of all. However, there is a danger of an implicit evaluation in the grading of interests as individual, public or social. What is an individual and what is a social interest is itself a matter of changing political conceptions. Many interests come under different categories. 6. Case Law To see the effect of Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s theory on interest we can look at the various judgments delivered by our courts giving effect to them. It has been witnessed through the action of Supreme Court in Vellore Citizenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Welfare Forum Vs. The Union of India[14] in which Kuldip Singh J. delivered the judgment that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“even if the industries are of vital importance for the countries progress as they provides employment but having regard to the pollution caused by him, the principle of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾sustainable developmentÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸ has to be adopted as a balancing concept between ecology and developmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . In this case the two principles emerged i.e. precautionary principle and the Polluter Pays principle. In a land mark case of Union Carbide Corporation vs. Union of India[15], the Supreme Court laid down the rule of Absolute Liability in which it was held that where an enterprise is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous activity and harm results to anyone on account of an accident in the operation of such hazardous activity, then the enterprise involved is strictly and absolutely liable to compensate to all those who are affected by the accident. In this case regarding the compensation the Court said that the measure of compensation must be correlated to the magnitude and capacity of the enterprise because such compensation has a deterrent effect for future accident. It can be seen from these judgements that social interest is prevailing in India. Conclusion Law plays an important role in reconciling and adjusting conflict of interests. Both the Social Interest and Individual Interest prevail over each other. Priority is given to all interests. Roscoe Pound has given the concept of Social Engineering for the American Society but this concept is followed by other countries in resolving disputes. India has also followed the same concept in establishing a welfare society. Both Judiciary and Legislators play an important role in enacting the statutes which fulfil the various desires of human being. In this society desires of human being grows and to fulfil their desires new policies, strategy has been developed. Bibliography Dr N. V. Paranjapee, Studies in Jurisprudence and Legal Theory, 6th edition 2011, Central Law Agency C.N.SHANKER RAO, Sociology Primary Principles, 3rd edition 2000, Published by S. Chand Company Ltd New Delhi Braybrooke, E K The Sociological Jurisprudence of Roscoe Pound 5 UWALawRw (1961) Linus J. McManaman à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Social Engineering: The Legal Philosophy of Roscoe Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  33 St.J LwRv 1958 B.N.MANI TRIPATHY, An Introduction to Jurisprudence and Legal Theory,18th edition 2004,Aallahabad Law Agency [1] visited on 10/9/2014 [2] visited on 10/9/2014 [3] Supra at 1 [4] Dr N. V. Paranjapee, Studies in Jurisprudence and Legal Theory, 6th edition 2011, Central Law Agency, pg 71 [5] C.N.SHANKER RAO, Sociology Primary Principles, 3rd ed 2000, Published by S. Chand Company Ltd New Delhi, pg. 155 [6] Ibid at 5 [7] Braybrooke, E K The Sociological Jurisprudence of Roscoe Pound 5 UWALawRw Pg 2 (1961) [8] Linus J. McManaman à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Social Engineering: The Legal Philosophy of Roscoe Poundà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  33 St.J LwRv 1958 [9] Ebid at 8 [10] Dr N. V. Paranjapee, Studies in Jurisprudence and Legal Theory, 6th edition 2011, Central Law Agency, pg 72 [11] B.N.MANI TRIPATHY, AN INTRODUCTION TO JURISPRUDENCE LEGAL THEORY,18th edition 2004,Aallahabad Law Agency, pg 49 [12] Dr N. V. Paranjapee, Studies in Jurisprudence and Legal Theory, 6th edition 2011, Central Law Agency, pg 73 [13] Ebid at 12 [14] (1996)5SCC647 [15] AIR 1990 SC273