Saturday, May 23, 2020
What is Cynicism? Courtesy of translator Giles LaurÃ ©n, author of The Stoics Bible from The Cynics Diogenes Laertius. Loeb Classical Library. 2 vols. From Socrates Antisthenes learned his hardihood, emulating his disregard of feeling, and he thus inaugurated the Cynic way of life.D.L.II. p.5. Id rather feel anger than feel pleasure.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.5. We ought to make love to such women as will feel a proper gratitude.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.5. What sort of woman should one marry? If shes beautiful, youll not have her to yourself; if shes ugly, youll pay for it dearly.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.5. It is a royal privilege to do good and be spoken ill of.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.5. It is better to fall in with crows than with flatterers; for in the one case you are devoured when dead and in the other case while alive.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.7. The height of human bliss? To die happy.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.7. As iron is eaten away by rust, so the envious are consumed by their own passion.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.7. States are domed when they are unable to distinguish good men from bad.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.7. When he was applauded by rascals: I am horribly afraid I have done something wrong.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.7. It is strange that we sort the wheat from the chaff and the unfit from the fit in war, but we do not excuse evil men from the service of the state.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. The advantages of philosophy? That I am able to hold converse with myself.Antisthenes.D.L.II.9. When Diogenes begged a coat from him, he bade him fold his cloak around him double.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. What learning is most necessary? How to get rid of having anything to unlearn.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. When men are slandered, they should endure it more courageously then if they were pelted with stones.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. He recommended the Athenians to vote that asses are horses because they had generals who had no training and were merely elected.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. Many men praise you. Why, what wrong have I done?Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.9. What must one do to become good and noble? You must learn from those who know the faults y ou have are to be avoided.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.11. May the sons of your enemies live in luxury!Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.11. Virtue can be taught; nobility belongs to the virtuous; virtue alone assures happiness; virtue is an affair of deeds and needs not words or learning.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. The wise man is self-sufficient for all the goods of others are his.Antisthenes. D.L.II. p.13. Ill repute is a good thing and much the same as pain.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. The wise man will be guided in his public acts not by the established laws but by the law of virtue.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. The wise man will marry and have children with the handsomest women and he will not disdain to love since only the wise man knows who is worthy to be loved.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. To the wise man, nothing is foreign or impracticable. A good man deserves to be loved. Men of worth are friends. Make allies of men who are at once both brave and just. Virtue is a weapon that cannot be taken away.Anti sthenes.D.L.II. p.13. It is better to be with a handful of good men fighting against all the bad than to be with hosts of bad men fighting against a handful of good men.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. Pay attention to your enemies, for they are the first to discover your mistakes.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. Esteem an honest man above a kinsman.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. Virtue is the same for women as for men.Antisthenes.D.L.II.p.13. Wisdom is a most sure stronghold which never crumbles away nor is betrayed. Walls of defence must be constructed by our own impregnable reasoning.Antisthenes.D.L.II. p.13. Strike, for you will find no wood hard enough to keep me away from you so long as I think you have something to teach me.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.25. By watching a mouse running about, not looking for a place to lie down, not afraid of the dark, not seeking any dainty things, Diogenes discovered the means of adapting himself to circumstances.D.L.II. p.25. For the conduct of life we need right reason or a halter.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.27. Antisthenes. PL.Mor.13.2,p.465. Men strive for many things, though few strive to be good.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.29. Diogenes was angry that men should sacrifice to the gods to ensure health and then feast to its detriment.D.L.II. p.31. We ought to stretch out our hands to our friends with the fingers open, not closed.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.31. You must obey me, although I am a slave, if a physician or a helmsman were in slavery, he would be obeyed.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.33. Alexander is reported [by Hecato] to have said: Had I not been Alexander, I should have liked to beDiogenes.D.L.II. p.35. PL.Mor.7,p.557. The word disabled ought to be applied not to the deaf or blind, but to those who have no wallet.Diogenes.D.L.I. p.35. Diogenes described himself as the sort of hound all praise, but none dare hunt with.D.L.II. p.35. You are an old man, take a rest! What? if I were running in the stadium ought I to slacken my pace when approaching the goal? Ought I not ra ther to put on speed?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.35. Having been invited to dinner, Diogenes declined, saying that the last time he had gone his host had not shown proper gratitude.D.L.II. p.35. Diogenes followed the example of the trainers of choruses in setting the note a little high to ensure the rest would hit the right note.D.L.II. p.37. Some people are so nearly mad that a finger makes all the difference. If you go about with your middle finger stretched out people will think you mad, but if its the little finger you may be praised.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.37. On observing a child drinking from his hands he threw away his cup and remarked: A child has bested me at plain living.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.39. All things belong to the gods. The wise are friends of the gods and friends hold all things in common. Therefore all things belong to the wise.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.39 D.L.II. p.73. To a woman ungracefully kneeling before a god: Are you not afraid good woman that the god may be standing behind you, for all things are full of his presence and you may be put to shame?Diogenes.D.L.,II. p.39. To fortune oppose courage, to convention nature, to passion reason.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.41. When Alexander told him to ask any boon he liked: Stand out of my light.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.41. PL.Mor.7,p.557. It would be ludicrous if good men were to dwell in the mire while folk of no account were to live in the Isles of the Blest because they had been initiated.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.41. When mice crept on to his table: See how even Diogenes keeps parasites.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.41. When Plato called him a dog: Quite true, I return again and again to those who have sold me.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.41. Upon leaving the baths he was asked if many men were bathing and replied, no; asked if there was a great crowd of bathers he replied yes.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.43. Plato had defined man as a featherless, biped animal. Diogenes brought a plucked chicken to the lecture hall and said: Here is Platos man.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.43. The proper time for lunch? If a rich man, when you will; if a poor man when you can.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.43. Its better to be a Megarians ram than his son.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.43. He lit a lamp in daylight and went about the streets saying: I am looking for a man.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.43. On seeing a religious purification: Unhappy man, dont you know that you can no more get rid of errors of conduct by sprinklings than you can mistakes of grammar?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. Men pray for things which seem to them good and not for good things.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. There are those who are more alive to their dreams than to their real lives.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. When the herald proclaimed Dioxippus to be victor: over men, Diogenes protested: Nay, over slaves, I over men.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. On being dragged before Philip and accused of spying: Yes, a spy upon your insatiable greed.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. PL.Mor.7,p.561. Alexander having sent a letter to Antipater by Athlios: Graceless son of graceless sire to graceless wight by graceless squire.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. Perdiccas having threatened him with death if he did not come to him: Thats nothing wonderful, for a beetle or a tarantula would do the same. I would have been properly threatened if Peridiccas had suggested he would be happy at my absence.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.45. The gods have given us the means of living easily, but that this had been put out of sight by our need for luxuries.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. To a man having his shoes put on by a slave: You will not attain full felicity until he wipes your nose as well and that will come when you have lost the use of your hands.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. When the officials of the temple led away a man who stolen a bowl: The great thieves are leading away the little thief.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. To a boy throwing stones at the gallows: Good work, one day youll find your mark.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.34. To a man wearing a lions skin: Leave-off dishonouring the habiliments of c ourage.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. To one commenting on Callisthenes good fortune: Not so, but ill fortune, for he must breakfast and dine when Alexander thinks fit.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. Being short of money, he told his friends that he asked not for alms, but for his salary.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47. When masturbating in the market place, he wished it were as easy to relieve hunger by rubbing an empty stomach.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.47 D.L.II. p.71. PL.Mor.13.2,p.501. To a youth playing cottabos: The better you play the worse it is for you.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. An ignorant rich man he called the sheep with the golden fleece.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. Seeing a for sale sign on the house of a profligate: I knew that after his excesses you would expel your owner.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. To a man who complained of being importuned: Cease to hang out a sign of invitation.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. Of a dirty bath: When people have bathed here, where are they to go to get clean?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. Diogene s alone praised a stout musician saying he was worthy for being so big and continuing to sing to his lute instead of turning brigand.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. To a musician who was always deserted by his audience: Hail chanticleer! Your song makes everyone rise.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.49. Hegesias asked him for one of his works: You dont choose painted figs over real ones and yet you pass over true training and apply yourself to written rules.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. When reproached for his exile: Nay, it was through you, you miserable fellow, that I became a philosopher.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. The people of Sinope exiled him; he condemned them to staying home.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. Why are athletes so stupid? Because they are built up of pork and beef.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. Why are you begging from a statue? To get practice in being refused.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. PL.Mor.7,p.65. If you have already given to anyone else, give to me also, if not, begin with me.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. What bronze is best for a statue? That of which Harmodius and Aristogiton were moulded.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. How does Dionysius treat his friends? Like purses; so long as they are full he hangs them up and when they are empty he throws them away.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.51. The love of money is the mother of all evils.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Seeing a spendthrift eating olives in a tavern: If you had breakfasted in this fashion, you would not be so dining.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Good men are the images of gods and love the business of the idle.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. What is wretched? An old man destitute.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. What creature has the worst bite? Of those that are wild, the sycophants, of those that are tame, the flatterers.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Ingratiating speech is honey used to choke you.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. The stomach is lifes Charybdis.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Why is gold pale? Because it has so many thieves plotting against it.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Seeing some women hanged from an olive tree. Would that every tree bore similar fruit.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.53. Do you have anyone to wait on you? No. Then who will carry you to burial? Whoever wants the house.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. Noticing a youth lying in an exposed position: Up man up lest some foe thrust a dart in your back.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. What sort of man do you consider Diogenes to be? A Socrates gone mad.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. The right time to marry? For a young man, not yet; for an old man, never at all.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. A man dressing with care: If its for men youre a fool; if for women a knave.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. To a blushing youth: Courage, that is the hue of virtue.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.55. After listening to two lawyers disputing and condemned them: one man had no doubt stolen, but the other had lost nothing.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. 118. What wine is pleasant to drink? That for which others pay.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 57. People laugh at you: But I am not laughed down.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. Li fe is evil: Not life, but living ill.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. When advised to go after his runaway slave: It would be absurd if Manes can live without Diogenes, that Diogenes could not get on without Manes.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. What kind of hound are you? When hungry a Maltese; when full a Molossian - two breeds that most people praise, though for fear of fatigue they do not venture out hunting with them. So neither can you live with me because you are afraid of the discomforts.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. Why do people give to beggars and not to philosophers? Because they think that one day they may be lame or blind, but never expect that they will turn to philosophy.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.57. On begging to a miser who was slow to respond: My friend, its for food that Im asking, not for funeral expenses.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.59. On being rebuked for falsifying the currency: That was the time when I was such as you are now, but such as I am now you will never be.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 59. To Myndus, a small city with large gates: Men of Myndus, bar your gates lest the city run away!Diogenes.D.L.II. p.59. In response to Craterus invitation: No, I would rather live on a few grains of salt at Athens than enjoy sumptuous fare at Crateruss table.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 59. To Anaximenes the fat rhetorician: Let us beggars have something of your paunch; it will be a relief to you and we shall get advantage.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 59. Being reproached for eating in the market: Well, it was in the market that I felt hungry.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.59. Plato saw him washing lettuce and said: If you had paid court to Dionysius you wouldnt now be washing lettuce. Diogenes: If you had washed lettuce you wouldnt have paid court to Dionysius.D.L.II. p.59. Most people laugh at you: And asses laugh at them, but as they do not care about asses so do I not care about them.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. Seeing a youth studying philosophy: Well done, Philosophy, that you divert admirers of bodily charms to the beauty of the soul.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. On the votive offerings at Samothrace: There would have been far more if those who were not saved had set up offerings.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. To a young man going out to dinner: You will come back a worse man.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. I will give you alms if you can persuade me: If I could persuade you I would persuade you to hang yourself.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. On his way from Lacedaemon to Athens: From the mens apartments to the womens.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. Libertines he compared to fig trees growing on a cliff whose fruit was eaten by vultures and ravens rather then by men.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.61. When a golden statue of Aphrodite was set up at Delphi: From the licentiousness of Greece.Diogenes.D.L.II. I am Alexander the Great King: and I am Diogenes the Cynic.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. Why are you called a Cynic? I fawn on those who give me anything, I bark at those who refuse, and I set my teeth in rascals.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. Handsome courtesans ar e like a deadly honeyed poison.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. A crowd gathered round when he ate in the market place calling him dog: It is you who are dogs when you stand around and watch me eat.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 63. When two cowards slunk away from him: Dont be afraid, a Cynic is not fond of beet root.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. On seeing a stupid wrestler practicing medicine: What does this mean? Are you to have your revenge on those who formerly beat you?Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 63. Seeing the child of a courtesan throwing stones at a crowd: Take care you dont hit your father.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. A boy having shown him a dagger he had received from an admirer: A pretty blade with an ugly handle.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. A man was commended for giving him a gratuity: Have you no praise for me who was worthy to receive it?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.63. A man asked if he might have his cloak back: If it was a gift I possess it and if it was a loan I am still using it.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. What have you ga ined from philosophy? This if nothing else, to be prepared for every fortune.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. Where are you from? I am a citizen of the world.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. To parents sacrificing to the gods in hopes of having a boy: But you do not sacrifice to ensure what manner of man he shall be.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. Being reproached for going in dirty places: The sun visits cesspools without being defiled.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. You dont know anything even though you are a philosopher: Even if I am a pretender to wisdom, that is philosophy.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. Someone brought him a child, highly gifted and of excellent character: What need then has he of me?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.67. Those who say excellent things yet fail to perform them are like harps as both have neither hearing nor perception.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.67. When he was asked why he was entering the theatre, meeting face to face everyone else as they came out: This is what I practice doing all my life.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.6 7. To a gay man: Are you not ashamed to make yourself less than natures intention; for nature made you a man and you play the part of a woman.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.67. To one who was ill adapted to study philosophy: Why then do you live if you do not care to live well?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.65. To one who despised his father: Are you not ashamed to despise him to whom you owe it that you can pride yourself?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.67. To a prating, handsome youth: Are you not ashamed to draw a dagger of lead from an ivory scabbard?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.67. 121. Being reproached for drinking in a tavern: Well, I also get my hair cut in a barbers shop.Diogenes.D.L.II. v.2, p.67. Many go to great pains to get what they would be better off without.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. To one with perfumed hair: Beware that the sweet scent on your head cause not an ill odour in your life.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. Bad men obey their lusts as slaves obey their masters.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. On seeing a bad archer he sat do wn in front of the target: So as to not get hit.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. Lovers derive their pleasures from their misfortunes.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. Is death evil? How can it be since in its presence we are not even aware of it?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. Alexander asked if he were afraid of him: Why? What are you, a good or a bad thing? A good thing. Who then is afraid of the good?Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. Education controls the young, consoles the old and adorns the rich.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.69. The most beautiful thing in the world? Freedom of speech.Diogenes.D.L.II. p. 71. On entering a boys school he found there many statues of the Muses, but few pupils: By the help of the gods, schoolmaster, you have filled your classroom.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.71. Two kinds of training, mental and bodily, each incomplete without the other.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.71. Nothing in life has any chance of succeeding without strenuous practice and this is capable of overcoming anything.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.73. Even the de spising of pleasure is pleasurable once we are habituated to it.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.73. Diogenes lives like Heracles, who preferred liberty to everything.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.73. It is impossible for society to exist without law. Without a city no benefit can be derived from what is called civilization. The city is civilised and there is no advantage in law without a city; therefore law is something civilised.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.75. Good birth and fame are the ornaments of vice.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.75. The only true commonwealth is as wide as the universe.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.75. Open union between a man who persuades and a woman who consents is better than marriage.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.75. Music, geometry, astronomy and the like studies are useless and unnecessary.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.75. What are you good for? Ruling men.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.77. Sell me to this man [Xaniades]; he needs a master!Diogenes.D.L.II. p.77. On slavery: Lions are not the slaves of those who feed them, rather, their mas ters are slaves to their possessions. Fear is the mark of the slave and lions do not fear men.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.77. Diogenes had a wonderful gift of persuasion and could easily vanquish anyone he liked in argument.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.77. It is the privilege of the gods to need nothing and of godlike men to want but little.Diogenes.D.L.II. p.109. Crates was a Theban; he was known as the Door-opener from his habit of entering into houses and admonishing those within.D.L.II. p.89. Set down for the chef ten minas, for the doctor One drachma, for the flatterer talents five, For counsel smoke, for mercenary beauty A talent, for the philosopher three obols.Crates.D.L.II. p.89. That much I have which I have learnt and thought, The noble lessons taught me by the Muses; But wealth amassed is prey to vanity.Crates.D.L.II. p.89. What have you gained from philosophy? A quirt of lupins and to care for no one.Crates.D.L.II. p.91. Hunger stops love, or, if not hunger, Time, Or, failing both of thes e means of help, a halter.Crates.D.L.II. p.91. In summer-time a thick cloak he would wear To be like Crates, and in winter rags.Philemon.D.L.II. p.91. Diocles relates how Diogenes persuaded Crates to give up his fields to sheep pasture and throw into the sea any money he had. In the home of Crates, Alexander is said to have lodged.D.L.II. p.91. The marriage of intrigue and adultery belongs to tragedy, having exile or assassination for its rewards; those who take up with courtesans are subjects for comedy since drunkenness and extravagance end in madness.Crates.D.L.II. p.93. Crates brother Pasicles, was a disciple of Euclides.D.L.II. p.93. It is impossible to find a man free from flaws; just as with the pomegranate, one seed is always going bad.Crates.D.L.II. p.93. We should study philosophy to the point of seeing generals as mere monkey drivers.Crates.D.L.II. p.95. Those who live with flatters are no safer than calves in the midst of wolves; neither have any to protect them and only such as plot against them.Crates.D.L.II. p.95. When Alexander asked if he would like his native city rebuilt: Why should it be? Another Alexander will come along and destroy it again.Crates.D.L.II. p. 97. Ignominy and Poverty are my country which Fortune can never take captive. I am a fellow citizen with Diogenes who defied all plots of envy.Crates.D.L.II. p. 97. Wearing a cloak youll go about with me, As once with Cynic Crates went his wife: His daughter too, as he himself declared, He gave in marriage for a month on trial.Menander. Twin Sisters.D.L.II. p.97. When he burned his own works: Phantoms are these of dreams o the world below.Metrocles.D.L.II. p.99. Do you suppose that I have been ill-advised, if instead of wasting further time on the loom, I have spent it on education?Hipparchia.D.L.II. p.101.
Monday, May 18, 2020
BOOK REPORT TITLE: The Prince and the Pauper AUTHOR: Mark Twain CLASSIFICATION: Adventure/Action/Classic SETTING: This story takes place in England during the time of King Henry XIII. It is set mainly in Offal Court and Westminster Palace. CHARACTER STUDY: In this story there are two look alikes. Tom Comty was born to a poor family in Offal Court. He looked identical to the Prince of Wales, Edward Tudor. Edward Tudor was born to royalty. He was the heir to the throne. There was only one problem amp;#8211; he had a look alike, Tom Comty. PLOT: In the adventure beyond our wildest dreams, there are two boys, Tom Comty and Edward Tudor. One was born to poverty and the other was born to royalty and was the heir to the throne.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Meanwhile, in the Palace, Tom Comty was enjoying being a prince. Many servants served him and he had people who dressed him. Then, one day King Henry XIII, Edwardamp;#8217;s father died. His made Tom the King. Edward had hard the news one day in the market and he knew that he had to get to the crowning ceremony before Tom was crowned or he would never get his position back. It was not so great for Tom either, because, he was asked questions to which he did not have answers, like, where did the prince put things like the certificate that gives him the right to sentence people. Edward had started his journey to get to the church where Tom was going to be crowned, but on his journey he ran into many obstacles: Tomamp;#8217;s drunk father and a gang of murderers and thieves. Luckily, on his journey he met a man by the name of Miles Hendon. Edward knighted him and he became Edwardamp;#8217;s trusted sidekick. Miles sought revenge on his brother who stole his girlfriend and married her. Edward promised he would help Miles is Miles helped him. It was the day of the crowning ceremony and Edward had just made it to the ceremony in time to stop it. He made a total fool of himself at first, but then Tom told them the truth. The Kingamp;#8217;s servant came up with the perfect test and asked the boy dressed in rags if he knew where the certificate for sentencing was, and indeed he knew where it was and Edward regained his position. During that sameShow MoreRelated Evils of Monarchy and Society in the Works of Mark Twain Essay2338 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Evils of Monarchy and Society in the Works of Mark Twain Ã Ã Ã Ã In the latter part of his life, Mark Twain developed a deep-rooted hatred for society.Ã His aphorisms often reflect this contempt: Every one is a moon and has a dark side which he shows to no one (Salwen n.pag.).Ã This disdain for humanity eventually seated itself in complete disapproval for what he called the damned human race.Ã Twains criticism for society appeared in many of his works, growing stronger and strongerRead MoreEssay about Mark Twain1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMark Twain Mark Twain is believed to be the father of all American literature. Twain was known for writing about issues of his time such as slavery, due to his style of honesty and truth he was known as one of the very first modernist writers. Mark Twain had many inspirations that motivated him to write his novels. The inspirations varied from events that he witnessed and experienced, people he met in his lifetime, other stories he read or heard about, and his environment. The writer knownRead MoreStage Fright By Mark Twain Analysis855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescompare Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s view of himself in Ã¢â¬Å"Stage FrightÃ¢â¬ with those we know from Suzy Clemens in Ã¢â¬Å"My Papa, Mark TwainÃ¢â¬ . Is everything we learn about Mark Twain fact, or is some of what we learn opinion? Which of these views most accurately portrays the real Mark Twain? Ã¢â¬Å"Stage FrightÃ¢â¬ written by Mark Twain and Ã¢â¬Å"My Papa Mark TwainÃ¢â¬ written by Suzy Clemens,Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter provides different perspectives on Mark Twain. In both stories we read about facts and opinions about Mark Twain. Mark TwainsRead More Samuel Langhorne Clemens Essay1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSamuel Langhorne Clemens Samuel Langhorne Clemens or commonly known as Mark Twain was an American writer and humorist. TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s writing is also known for realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of bad faith and oppression. Clemens was born in Florida and then later on moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a Mississippi river port, when he was four years old. There he received a public school education. After his father died in 1847, Clemens was assisted to two Hannibal printersRead MoreBiography of Mark Twain Essay1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBiography of Mark Twain Twain, Mark, pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), American writer and humorist, whose best work is characterized by broad, often irreverent humor or biting social satire. Twains writing is also known for realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression. Born in Florida, Missouri, Clemens moved with his family to Hannibal, Missouri, a port on the Mississippi River, when he was four years old. There he receivedRead MoreThe Pen Name Of Samuel Langhorne Clemens933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMark Twain was the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, one of the most famous writers of American Literature. He was born on November 30, 1835, in the tiny Midwestern village of Florida, Missouri. He was the sixth child of John and Jane Clemens. As a four year old, his family moved to Hannibal and he began to become exposed to the social and financial problems of his era when. Hannibal was a small town near the Mississippi River where his father his uncle owned slaves. Twain created his own opinionsRead More Mark Twain Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mark Twain was the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, one of the major authors of American fiction. Twain is also considered the greatest humorist in American literature. His varied works include novels, travel narratives, short stories, sketches, and essays. His writings about the Mississippi River, such as The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, have proven especially popular among modern readers. I feel that many of Mark Twains writingsRead More Mark Twain Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages MARK TWAIN a.k.a. Samuel Langhorne Clemens nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;quot;Mark Twain, which is a pseudonym for Samuel Langhorne Clemens, was born in 1835, and died in 1910. He was an american writer and humorist. Maybe one of the reasons Twain will be remembered is because his writings contained morals and positive views. Because Twains writing is so descriptive, people look to his books for realistic interpretations of places, for his memorable characters, and his ability to describe hisRead MoreHow Mark Twain Influenced American Literature1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow Mark Twain Influenced American Literature When you think of the start of American Literature, what comes to your mind? Authors such as Walt Whitman, Ernest Hemmingway, Emily Dickinson, Charles Dickens, and Mark Twain stick out in our minds. They were the face of post-civil war and social realism poetry. Today we will take a closer look at Mark Twain, who was also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"FatherÃ¢â¬ of American Literature. His work has survived more than 100 years after his death. Mark Twain was born inRead MoreThe Man Known as Mark Twain1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMark Twain The man known as Mark Twain was born Samuel Clemens in Florida, Missouri on April 30, 1835. Samuel Langhorne Clemens was welcomed into the world as the sixth child of John Marshall and Jane Lampton Clemens. Little did they know their son (as Mark Twain) would be one of Americas most famous literary icons. Samuel got the name Mark Twain from the current of the river. He loved the rivers and everything about it. Mark Twains writing style was heavily influenced by the people and area
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Fahrenheit and Kelvin are two common temperature scales. The Fahrenheit scale is used in the United States, while Kelvin is an absolute temperature scale, used worldwide for scientific calculations. While you might think this conversion wouldnt occur much, it turns out there is a lot of scientific and engineering equipment that uses the Fahrenheit scale! Fortunately, it is easy to convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin. Fahrenheit to Kelvin Method #1 Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature.Multiply this number by 5.Divide this number by 9.Add 273.15 to this number. The answer will be the temperature in Kelvin. Note that while Fahrenheit has degrees, Kelvin does not. Fahrenheit to Kelvin Method #2 You can use the conversion equation to perform the calculation. This is especially easy if you have a calculator that allows you to enter the whole equation, but its not difficult to solve by hand. TK (TF 459.67) x 5/9 For example, to convert 60 degrees Fahrenheit to Kelvin: TK (60 459.67) x 5/9 TK 288.71 K Fahrenheit to Kelvin Conversion Table You can also estimate a temperature by looking up the closest value on a conversion table. There is a temperature where the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales read the same temperature. Fahrenheit and Kelvin read the same temperature at 574.25. Fahrenheit (Ã °F) Kelvin (K) -459.67 Ã °F 0 K -50 Ã °F 227.59 K -40 Ã °F 233.15 K -30 Ã °F 238.71 K -20 Ã °F 244.26 K -10 Ã °F 249.82 K 0 Ã °F 255.37 K 10 Ã °F 260.93 K 20 Ã °F 266.48 K 30 Ã °F 272.04 K 40 Ã °F 277.59 K 50 Ã °F 283.15 K 60 Ã °F 288.71 K 70 Ã °F 294.26 K 80 Ã °F 299.82 K 90 Ã °F 305.37 K 100 Ã °F 310.93 K 110 Ã °F 316.48 K 120 Ã °F 322.04 K 130 Ã °F 327.59 K 140 Ã °F 333.15 K 150 Ã °F 338.71 K 160 Ã °F 344.26 K 170 Ã °F 349.82 K 180 Ã °F 355.37 K 190 Ã °F 360.93 K 200 Ã °F 366.48 K 300 Ã °F 422.04 K 400 Ã °F 477.59 K 500 Ã °F 533.15 K 600 Ã °F 588.71 K 700 Ã °F 644.26 K 800 Ã °F 699.82 K 900 Ã °F 755.37 K 1000 Ã °F 810.93 K Do Other Temperature Conversions Converting Fahrenheit to Kelvin is not the only temperature conversion you may need to be familiar with. You may want to learn to convert between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin in any combination Celsius to FahrenheitFahrenheit to CelsiusCelsius to KelvinKelvin to FahrenheitKelvin to Celsius
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Abandonment of Moral Values in Ã¢â¬Å"The Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬ The more the human race progresses, the blurrier the line between righteousness and wrongness gets. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Gatsby,Ã¢â¬ F. Scott Fitzgerald associates the eyes of T.J. Eckleburg with a higher authority to show the lack of integrity and disregard for judgement of the characters in the novel. It is evident that although most of the characters see the eyes and are disgruntled by them, they continue to follow through with their unethical actions. The characters are fearless about the consequences of these actions, and are unconcerned about how low their spiritual and moral values are. The billboard of EckleburgÃ¢â¬â¢s all -seeing eyes represent a spiritual authority, and a weary one atÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, it cannot intervene with what it is watching happen, just as God is thought to always be watching but hardly ever interceding. Instead, the eyes seem to be attempting to urge Nick of something. It could be a general warning of steering clear of carele ss and inconsiderate people like Tom, Daisy, and Jordan, or a specific warning of an upcoming event. We find out later that Myrtle is killed at that same spot a few hours later. That may be what the eyes are foreshadowing. The fact that Nick overlooks the warning, like he purposely overlooks many things about the people he meets, reveals an insight into his character. He overlooks GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s illegal dealings with Wolfshiem, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s cheating on Daisy, and Jordans dishonesty. Even though he sees what these wealthy people are like, he is too in awe of their wealth and beauty to condemn them, at least at first. Most of the characters in the novel almost deliberately ignore the billboard, and seem to have no moral principles whatsoever. However, there is one character who does seem to want a God-like presence in his life: George Wilson. Fitzgerald states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËYou may fool me but you canÃ¢â¬â¢t fool God!Ã¢â¬â¢...he was looking at the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg w hich had just emerged pale and enormous from dissolving nightÃ¢â¬ . This is the scene in which George apparently makes up his mind to hunt down his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s killer. Fitzgerald now, quite obviously, connects the billboard to God.Show MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesScott Key FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Great Gatsby showcases the American society during the Roaring 1920s. During this time period many longed to be rich and become a member of the upper class. It became oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dream to obtain good social standing rather than to achieve freedom and happiness. Fitzgerald creates characters, such as Daisy Buchanan and Jay Gatsby, who are more concerned with wealth than what truly makes them happy in life. Therefore, many perceive the theme of this novel to be achievingRead MoreEssay on The Corruption of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespublished The Great Gatsby, a novel that would later become o ne of the best known pieces of classic literature in history. However, at the time of its publication, Gatsby was fairly unpopular ad the reviews were never consistent. As shocking as it may seem, I believe it is because FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence and creativity levels were way ahead of his time, which is evident when one pays close attention to the themes of the novel. Forgiveness, love, and memory of the past are just a few themes you willRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Great Gatsby 1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiterary Analysis of The Great Gatsby Dreams are a compelling force in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. They are what propel them forward each and every day in an effort to reach something better. The American Dream has been sought after by millions all over the world for hundreds of years. This country was founded on the belief that anyone could achieve their dreams. However, in the 1920s these hopes and aspirations began to splinter until they ultimately shattered. In the novel, The Great Gatsby, F. Scott FitzgeraldRead MoreThemes of The Great Gatsby Essay1040 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesF. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby is a story that has many different themes. Fitzgerald shows the themes that he uses through his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and actions. This novel has themes in it that we deal with in our everyday life. It has themes that deal with our personal lives and themes that deal with whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong. There are also themes that have to do with materialistic items that we deal desire on a daily basis. Fitzgerald focuses on the themes of corrupted love, immoralityRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween the central characters of The Great Gatsby, a timeless classic written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, set in a hedonistic summer of 1922 America, and Death of a Salesman, written by American playwright Arthur Miller set in 1949 America. The characterisation of both Willy and Gatsby illustrate that they have similarities, in a way that are considered destitute, with imperfect ethical conduct. To a certain extent both protagonists have the right intentions; Gatsby wants to grasp at his quest for loveRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Great Gatsby 1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJaylinn Cooper Mrs. Fowler English III March 3, 2017 Literary Analysis of The Great Gatsby The 1920s in America, known as the Roaring Twenties, was a time of celebration after a destructive war. It was a period of time in America characterised by prosperity and optimism. There was a general feeling of disruption associated with modernity and a break with traditions.The Roaring Twenties was a time of great economic prosperity and many people became rich and wealthy. Some people inherited oldRead MoreFalling into Money in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald707 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Her voice is full of money.Ã¢â¬ Jay Gatsby said this while talking to Nick about Daisy. Daisy is a prime example of what people call a Ã¢â¬Å"gold digger.Ã¢â¬ She proves the theme, once the world reveals some of its riches; people tend to forget their values. Throughout the entire book, The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, we see over and over people turning their backs to love for money. They are shown money and never look back; a deep and powerful lusts controls them. Whil e reading this book it conjuresRead MoreEssay about Great Gatsby862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesScott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby / Gatsbys Desire for Daisy exploring why Gatsby had such an obsessive desire for Daisy. The writer purports that Gatsby began by pursuing an ideal, not the real woman. In fact, he could not recognize the type of person she had become since they last saw each other. Gatsby lives in a dream world and Daisy is part of that dream. As the novel progresses, however, Gatsbys feelings change. Bibliography lists Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby : The Role of NickRead MoreThe Great Gatsby1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdeep desire for FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth, fame, money and material luxury. Both Gatsby and Fitzgerald idolize wealth and luxury and at last fell in love with a beautiful woman when they stopped at a military camp in the South. After, author fell in love with Zelda; he tried to convince her by attending reckless Saturday parties and wanted to win ZeldaÃ¢â¬â¢s love by writing to earn money. In the novel, same thing happened with Gatsby, he devoted himself to acquire both name and fame and did his best to winRead MoreWhat Techniques Does Fitzgerald Use to Convey the Main Themes in the Great Gatsby1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Great Gatsby Ã¢â¬Å"What techniques does Fitzgerald use to convey the central ideas of The Great Gatsby?Ã¢â¬ The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is primarily a social commentary on the state of American society during the post-war period of unprecedented affluence and prosperity. Fitzgerald depicts 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s America as an age of decline in traditional social and moral values; primarily evidenced by the cynicism, greed and the relentless yet empty pursuit of prosperity and pleasure that various characters
CHILDREN AND LOVERS Ophelia Alcantara-Dimalanta (1934-2010) children have a special knack for making you feel odd and nude suddenly even with that vaguest piece of smile you ready somewhere to cover a scorching shame when they wickedly naive and sportive barge in without ceremony and when you finally shut that errant door on them again to try resuming love you terminate it both ways instead it seems the look of bewilderment and hurt they leave behind you cannot annul henceforth an alienating chill scudding across your upright headboard flipped into stiffened sheets and consciences eighty and brittle with adult experiences and reconsidered passions confounding even the best intentions but even more final than all finalities fumbled for is the cool crisp Ã¢â¬Å"laterÃ¢â¬ you wall them away with somewhere again love waiting suffers a little falling away you end up wishing lovers are more like gaming children and children less like gnarled impatient lovers. DREAMWEAVERS Marjorie M. Ev asco (b. We will write a custom essay sample on Humalit Poems Ã¢â¬â Torres or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1953) We are entitled to our own definitions of the worlds we have in common: earthhouse(stay) waterwell(carry) firestove(tend) airsong(sigh) etherdream(die) and try out new combinations ith key words unlocking power house on fire sing! stove under water stay, earth filled well die. The spells and spellings of our vocabularies are oracular in translation one woman in Pagnito-an another in Solentiname still another in Harxheim and many other women naming half the world together canmove their earth musthouse their fire be water to their song will their dreams well. THE CONVERSION J. Neil C. Garcia (b. 1969) It happened in a metal drum. They put me there, my family that loved me. The water had been saved just for it, that day. The laundry lay caked and smelly In the flower-shaped basins. Dishes soiled with fat and swill piled high in the sink, and grew flies. My cousins did not get washed that morning. Lost in masks of snot and dust, their faces looked tired and resigned to the dirty lot of children. All the neighbors gathered around our open-air bathroom. Wives peered out from the upper floor of their houses into our yard. Father had arrived booming with his cousins, my uncles. They were big, strong men, my uncles. They turned the house inside-out looking for me. Curled up in the deepest corner of my dead motherÃ¢â¬â¢s cabinet, father found me. He dragged me down the stairs by the hair into the waiting arms of my uncles. Because of modesty, I merely screamed and cried. Their hands, swollen and black with hair, bore me up in the air, and touched me. Into the cold of the drum I slipped, the tingling too much to bear at times my knees felt like they had turned into water. Waves swirled up and down around me, my head bobbing up and down. Father kept booming, Girl or Boy. I thought about it and squealed, Girl. Water curled under my nose. When I rose the same two words from father. The same girl kept sinking deeper, breathing deeper in the churning void. In the end I had to say what they all wanted me to say. I had to bring this diversion to its happy end, if only for the pot of rice left burning in the kitchen. I had to stop wearing my dead motherÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes. In the mirror I watched the holes on my ears grow smaller, until they looked as if they had never heard of rhinestones, nor felt their glassy weight. I should feel happy now that IÃ¢â¬â¢m redeemed. And I do. Father died within five years. I got my wife pregnant with the next. Our four children, all boys, are the joy of my manhood, my proof. Cousins who never shed their masks lay them for all their snot and grime. Another child is on the way. I have stopped caring what it will be. Water is still a problem and the drum is still there, deep and rusty. The bathroom has been roofed over with plastic. Scrubbed and clean, my wife knows I like things. She follows, though sometimes a pighead she is. It does not hurt to show her who is the man. A woman needs some talking sense in to. If not, I hit her in the mouth to learn her. Every time, swill drips from her shredded lips. I drink with my uncles who all agree. They should because tonight I own their souls nd the bottles they nuzzle like their prides. While they boom and boom flies whirr over their heads that grew them. Though nobody remembers, I sometimes think of the girl who drowned somewhere in a dream many dreams ago. I see her at night with bubbles springing like flowers from her nose. She is dying and before she sinks I try to touch her open face. But the water learns to heal itself and closes around her like a wound. I should feel sorry but I drown myself in gin before I can. Better off dead, I say to myself and my family that loves me for my bitter breath. We die to rise to a better life. How to cite Humalit Poems Ã¢â¬â Torres, Essay examples
Lao Tzu Essay Born in the Chinese province of Henan, Lao Tzu lived from c. 604-c.531 BCE. He was a philosopher attributed with the writing of the Tao-Te-Ching and the reputed founder of Taoism. (Tao meaning the way of all life, Te meaning the fit use of life by all men, and Ching meaning text.) Lao Tzu was not his real name but rather an honorary title given to him by his followers meaning Old Master. Lao Tzu believed that human life is constantly influenced by outer forces; not unlike everything else in the universe. He knew that simplicity was key to all truth and freedom. He always encouraged those who followed him to observe and to seek to understand the laws of nature. Lao Tzu believed that one should develop intuition and build up personal power, which would then be used to lead life with love sans force. As he often contemplated the natural world, Lao Tzu felt that it was man and his doings that created an affliction on the otherwise flawless order of things. Thus he counseled his followers to turn away from the silliness of human pursuits and to return to their na tural wellspring. Lao Tzu taught that straining and striving are not only useless but also counterproductive. One should venture to do nothing in the sense of discerning and following the natural forces; to follow and shape the natural flow of events. All this is known as the Taoist doctrine of wu-wei. It can be understood as a way of mastering circumstances by understanding their nature and then shaping ones actions to comply. The Taoist philosophy followed an interesting circle. On one hand, that Taoists rejected the regulation of life and society and preached instead to turn away from it to a solitary meditation of nature. On the other hand, they believed that by doing this one could ultimately have power enough to harness the whole universe. That by doing nothing one could accomplish everything. In this way Lao Tzus philosophy reached out to political rulers and advised them of how to govern their land. Thus Taoism, in a sense became a sort of political philosophy following these lines: The Taoist has no ambitions, therefore he can never fail. He who never fails always succeeds. And he who always succeeds is all-powerful.According to legend, nearing the end of his life, Lao Tzu set off into the desert toward what is now Tibet, sadden and disillusioned that men were so unwilling to follow the path to natural goodness. When he arrived at the final gate at the Great Wall of China, the gatekeeper convinced Lao Tzu to record his teachings and the principles of his philosophy before he left. He then composed in five thousand characters, eighty-one sayings that make up the Tao Te Ching. This ancient Chinese text is the most translated classic worldwide next to the Bible. From his solitary contemplation of nature, removed from human affairs, Lao Tzu conjured a philosophy that has, both in critical as well as a constructive sense, a direct and practical political message:Why are people starving?Because the rulers eat up the money in taxes. Therefore the people are starving. Why are the people rebellious?Because the rulers interfere too much. Therefore they are rebellious. Why do people think so little of death?Because the rulers demand too much of life. Therefore the people take life lightly. Having to live on, one knows better than to value life too much. -Lao Tzu_Words/ Pages : 642 / 24
Friday, May 1, 2020
ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s incredible career reflects the changing social and economic structures of England in the late 1300s. Before the 1300s, as I discussed, there were basically two classes. There was the Nobility, the wealthiest one or two percent of England, and there were the Serfs, everyone else. As centuries passed, families began to pass on skills at trades and crafts they would pass on. By the time of the 12th into the 13th century, the products that peasants or serfs were able to make became a commodity for exchange. Instead of importing goods, or having certain products costume made expensively, aristocrats and nobility began to buy from and realize the benefit of trading with domestic and local merchants. Instead of enslaving the masses to maintain agriculture, those with money began to cultivate certain populations for the products and services they could offer. Particularly as trade between nations began to grow, London evolved into a bustling port. We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural and Intellectual Background to Chaucers Era or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This collapse in the two class society created a more mobile middle class that broke from agricultural serfdom, and began to find economic autonomy servicing the rich and, as time goes on, each other. By the time of Shakespeare, the popularity of theater was the result of a rapidly grown middle class that has some disposable income and a desire for leisure earned after a work week. Chaucer grew up and lived during this expansion of a merchant class. Because his father served an important recreational function for the wealthy Ã¢â¬â wine distribution Ã¢â¬â he had connections through clients that allowed Chaucer entrance into a noble and aristocratic world. As he worked his way up the ladder in the aristocratic and royal world of London (much like a young person working his way up the corporate ladder), Chaucer had access to and enjoyed many of the privileges of nobility. Importantly, he was not aristocracy, nobility or royalty. Chaucer had exposure to a vast variety of humanity and experience, which is reflected in his writing, particularly The Canterbury Tales. In short, he was a true social and literary Renaissance man many decades before the Renaissance itself settled in England. Even though Chaucer is one of the three or four most important figures in English literature, it is important to recognize that no one at the time, including himself, would have called him a Ã¢â¬Å"poetÃ¢â¬ or an Ã¢â¬Å"author. Ã¢â¬ Chaucer would have called designated himself at whatever job he worked, such as Comptroller, or Forester, never, Ã¢â¬Å"poet. Ã¢â¬ Writing in the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, was not a career. There were no career writers in England until the eighteenth century, when the publishing industry made it possible for writing to become a commercial enterprise. Poets or narrators, like Chaucer, created their work on the side. They usually distributed their work to other members of the court or nobility in limited circulation. Or, as in the case of Sir Gawain, a poem was written and used for an aristocratic or royal event, like a wedding, birthday or holiday. The Canterbury Tales was more than likely distributed for readership amongst ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s friends and colleagues in the various aristocratic spheres he traveled. Depending upon how you choose to interpret a work, audience can be an important factor. It could be significant to know, for instance, when you read Ã¢â¬Å"The Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s TaleÃ¢â¬ that only rich and noble men would have read it.